Norovirus Stool (EIA-4864)
The Norovirus ELISA is a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative determination of the Norwalk viruses of Genogroups I and II in stool samples. For in vitro use.
SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF THE TEST
The name Norovirus stands for a group of viruses which are pathogenic to humans. These were first distinguished from the classical Caliciviruses as small round structured viruses (SRSVs) owing to their morphology. Caliciviruses were named as such because their typical surface structure resembled a string of cups (lat. calix = cup). Today, Noroviruses and the classical Caliciviruses are combined into one family, the Caliciviridae.
All these SRS viruses have been named after the place where they were first isolated. Thus, the name Norwalk-like stood for all viruses which have been isolated during outbreaks of gastroenteritis and the name originated from the first time SRSV designated viruses were isolated in the city of Norwalk, Ohio, in the USA in 1972. The Norwalk virus was therefore the prototype of today's Noroviruses.
Later, other isolates were named Snow Mountain agent, Hawaii agent and Montgomery county agent etc. in a similar way. According to the current directive of the “International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)” of 2002, Caliciviruses are classified into the two human Genera, Norovirus and Sapovirus. There are also two genera which are pathogenic to animals. To what extent transmissions of animal Caliciviruses play a role in human infection is not currently known. All these viruses are icosahedral, single-stranded, RNA viruses, the capsid of which mainly consists of
multiple copies of only one structural protein. None of these viruses can be cultured. They are the source of both isolated infections and outbreaks of gastroenteritis affecting all age groups. The genus, Norovirus, causes the majority of cases by far of all nonbacterial gastroenteritis.