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The Herpes simplex virus 1 IgA/IgG/IgM Enzyme Immunoassay Kit provides materials for the quantitative determination of human IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies against Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) in serum and plasma. This assay is intended for in-vitro use only. In the United States, this kit is intended for Research Use Only.
The Herpes simplex virus type 1 is an ubiquitous pathogen of humans that usually causes either asymptomatic infection or mild skin and mucosal diseases. Antibodies to HSV 1 occur in about 90% of adults. Normally HSV 1 is transmitted by oral secretions or open wounds prior to the age of five. Recently in adults primary infections were observed, too.
After the primary infection some viruses establish a latent state in their host cells (mostly ganglial cells). The virus DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell, where it remains until the infected person dies. After stimulation of the host cell, recurrent infection occurs, which is called an exacerbation, when clinical symtoms appear. The recurrence may be caused by
different kinds of traumas, as fever or physiological changes and diseases. Immunosuppressed persons may show a severe clinical course.
HSV 1 causes different clinical symptoms in about 10% of the primary infections. The major clinical manifestations associated with HSV 1 infections are gingivostomatitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis, vesicular eruptions of the skin, encephalitis, eczema and some letal infections of newborns. HSV 1 causes 85% and HSV 2 15% of oral primary infections. Recurrent
infection occurs in form of labial fever blisters. After ulceration and scabbing of these blisters complete recovery occurs within 10 days. The central nervous system may be involved in both primary and recurrent infections. In some cases HSV 1 infection leads to a meningitis with different neurological symptoms. Persons at an increased risk for serious or prolonged
HSV infections are those with eczema, severe burns or a defect in their cell-mediated immunity.
The drug Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for most serious HSV infections.
The common manifestations of HSV infections are so typical that the infection may be easily diagnosed on clinical recognition alone. The "gold standard" for diagnosis of HSV infection remains isolation of the virus in tissue culture. For typing HSV 1/HSV 2 Western blots or indirect immunofluorescence may be performed.
Diagnosis of the primary infection by HSV 1/HSV 2 can be confirmed by a significant rise of the IgG titer within 6 to 10 days. A finished infection can be monitored by the IgG ELISA. In case of a suspicion of HSV encephalopathy it is recommended to perform a parallel determination of both HSV-specific antibodies (IgG and IgM) in serum and liquor.