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The DRG Echinococcus IgG Enzyme Immunoassay Kit provides materials for the qualitative and semiquantitative determination of IgG-class antibodies to Echinococcus in serum. This assay is intended for in vitro diagnostic use only.
Echinococci are microscopic cestodes (tapeworms) with a length of 1.4 to 6 mm which are dependent on their genus found. o either in dogs or other canids (E. granulosus) o or in foxes, oyotes and wolves (E. multilocularis) Sources of infection are final hosts (i.e. dogs for E. granulosus and mainly foxes for E. multilocularis) and food contaminated with parasite eggs.
After ingestion of a suitable intermediate host, the egg hatches in the small bowel and releases an oncosphere that penetrates the intestinal wall and through the circulatory system into various organs where it develops into a cyst. Echinococcus infections remain silent for years before the enlarging cysts cause symptoms in the affected organs E. granulosus larvae (oncospheres) begin to vesiculate mainly in the liver but also in the lungs and in other organs
(20%). The parasites form spherical, unilocular, fluid-filled cysts and can achieve diameters between 1-15 cm.
In contrast to cystic echinococcosis, E. multilocularis larvae are found almost exclusively (98%) in the liver, but secondary lesions can spread metastatically to other organs (lungs, kidneys, CNS and others). The parasites grow infiltrative and tumor-like in the host tissue.
E. granulosus occurs practically worldwide E. multilocularis occurs in the northern hemisphere, including central Europe and the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.
Detectable immune responses have been associated with the location, integrity, and vitality of the larval cyst. Cysts in the liver are more likely to elicit antibody response than cysts in the lungs, and regardless of localization, antibody detection tests are least sensitive in patients with intact hyaline cysts. Cysts in the lungs, brain, and spleen are associated with lowered serodiagnostic reactivity whereas those in bone appear to more regularly stimulate detectable antibody. Fissuration or rupture of a cyst is followed by an abrupt stimulation of antibodies. A Differentiation between both species of Echinococcus is not possible.